What Does “Anasazi” Mean, and Why Is It Controversial?

We were recently updating a page on our website and were surprised when we came across some text using the outdated term “Anasazi.” We recognized the need to change the term on that page, and to search the site for any other remaining references. Realizing that people visit the IPCC and our website from all over the world, and that many still search for information by that term, we decided that erasure and replacement wasn’t enough – as a cultural and educational organization, we needed to explain why.

The term “Anasazi” was established in 1927 through the archaeological Pecos Classification system, referring to the Ancestral Pueblo people who spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, including Mesa Verde, Chaco Canyon, Canyon De Chelly, and Aztec. The term is Navajo in origin, and means “ancient enemy.” The Pueblo peoples of New Mexico understandably do not wish to refer to their ancestors in such a disrespectful manner, so the appropriate term to use is “Ancestral Pueblo” or “Ancestral Puebloan.”

According to archaeologist Linda Cordell, “Anasazi” was first applied to the ruins of Mesa Verde by Richard Wetherill, a rancher and trader who was the first Anglo-American known to explore the sites in that area in 1888–89. Wetherill knew and worked with Navajos, and understood what the word meant. The name was further embedded in archaeological circles when it was adopted by Alfred V. Kidder, the acknowledged dean of Southwestern Archaeology, who felt it was easier to use than creating a more technical term.

“It is to my knowledge within our Pueblo communities that we have always referred to our ancestors with proper words to describe their next stage in life with honor and care according to our own language composition,” says Stephanie Oyenque (Acoma Pueblo), IPCC Cultural Education Specialist. “The term ‘Anasazi’ is a word not used within our Pueblo communities. Therefore, how can we, as a universal collective, honor our past people with dignity and respect?  Now is the time to take back control of how to accurately describe our ancestral people.”

In pursuit of accuracy and respect, the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center and Shumakolowa Native Arts are dedicated to changing all mentions of Anasazi to Ancestral Pueblo or Ancestral Puebloan, and helping to educate others on the reason the term is no longer acceptable. It will only appear on our sites when part of a product or other official name, and in those cases a link to this information will be included.

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Eldrick and Charlotte Seoutewa Zuni Inlay White Mother of Pearl Dangle Earrings
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14 comments

  • Ana-sazi ana-enemy or bad way, we have ceremonies for both anà or hozhò. Sazì old like ancient; like sà old age. It’s taboo for Navajo to touch any relics left behind by them, it’s believed that they’re cursed and have supernatural effects on ones well being. Growing up on the Navajo Nation I thought this was taught in schools across the country and not just the Rez; especially when you go to border towns and see anasazi inn like establishments. Or my personal favorite, the spunky sqaw website.

    Thomas Begay
  • Thank you for the information, I’m thrilled to read the true story of the true meaning of Anasazi.
    Look forward to learning more.

    Alice Chambers
  • Thank you for the valuable history lesson. As I too, am discovering my Native American Ancestry, it is important to begin my journey with factual information.

    Regards,

    Helen Lester

    Helen Lester
  • First of all, I would like to say its never too late to make a change and educated ourselves.

    I liked this article very much! I hope to see more like this in the future.

    Yolanda Norsworthy
  • Thanks so much for this enlightening info; it answers questions I’ve had in my head for a long time. I thought the Anasazi were an extinct people and never associated the name with the present nationalities, so it is good to know the real meaning of the term & know I haven’t offended you by using it. Thanks again & much respect.

    Roxanne Stone

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